Munții Apuseni is a side-chain of the Carpathians. The landscape of the northern part, Vlădeasa, is characterized by montane meadows on top of the mountain ridge serving as a pasture for livestock. Solitary dwellings are inhabited during the summertime, for winter herdsmen (and herdswoman) reside in villages in valleys. Two extremes can be observed nowadays: empty dwellings near bigger cities, which swallowed all labor forces to factories and overgrazing in other parts.
Forests with fragile ecosystems are threatened by illegal logging. And so are people foresters and environmentalists, many of them are physically assaulted, some even killed.
The Bihor mountain range is characterized by karst with caverns, sinkholes and abyss. The most famous is the Cetățile Ponorului cave system, but there are many others like Cetatea Rădesei cave and others. Deep valleys are hiding many waterfalls, including the 80 meters long Cascada Bohodei.